The activity of cambium is under the control of many physiological and environmental factors. In temperate regions, the climatic conditions are not uniform throughout the year. In the spring season, cambium is very active and produces a large number of xylary elements having vessels with wider cavities. It produces a large number of xylary elements. This xylem contains bigger and several pores which are regularly xylem vessels with wider opening and lumens. The lumens are having fewer fibers content and it grows radically with wide deepness. The wood formed during this season is called spring wood or earlywood. This wood is lighter in color. This wood has a lesser thickness in a tree. This wood is present at the beginning of the annual ring. Xylem fibers are present less in number in spring wood.
Spring Wood Characteristics:
- Condition – Form during the favorable condition
- Location – At the beginning of an annual ring
- Wood Color – Wood is light in color
- Xylem Fibers – Fewer in number.
In winter, the cambium is less active and forms fewer xylary elements that have narrow vessels, and this wood is called autumn wood or late wood. It produces a less number of xylary elements. Xylem fibers are present abundant in number in an autumn wood. This wood has a higher thickness of the wood. This wood is darker in color. Autumn wood comprises a slight narrow piece in the annual ring as it finishes the annual ring.
Autumn Wood Characteristics:
- Condition – Form during the unfavorable condition
- Location – At the end of an annual ring
- Wood Color – Wood is dark In color
- Xylem Fibers – Fibers are abundant.
The spring wood is lighter in color and has a lower density whereas the autumn wood is darker and has a higher density. The two kinds of woods that appear as alternate concentric rings, constitute an annual ring. Annual rings are seen in a cut stem give an estimate of the age of the tree. This wood is present at the end of the annual ring.