(A) Pseudopodia: From any part of the body of living Amoeba finger like growth are produced continuously. These are known as pseudopodia. Pseudopods are made of plasmalemma, ectoplasm and endoplasm. These are unstable outgrowths of the body and disappear soon. The anterior part of pseudopods is round and blunt.
- Pseudopods help in capturing the food materials.
- They play an important role in locomotion.
- Pseudopods indicate the anterior part of the Amoeba at the time of locomotion.
(B) Vacuoles: There are several types of vacuoles in Amoeba. Presence of the vacuoles is an important characteristic of Amoeba. The nature of the formation of these vacuoles is rather simple. The vacuoles help in various physiological functions.
There are three types of vacuoles in Amoeba.
1. Contractile Vacuole: In the endoplasm of Amoeba some bubble like vacuoles are seen. These vacuoles are transparent and fast growing. In the body of the living Amoeba these vacuoles can continuously be contracted or expanded, so, these have been named as contractile vacuoles. Functions:
- Contractile vacuoles store the watery substance of the body.
- They help in the removal of excess water and excretory products.
- They help in the expulsion of carbon dioxide produced during respiration.
2. Food Vacuole: In the body of Amoeba food vacuole is formed surrounding the food material. There may be one or more of this vacuole. Size, shape and number of these depend on the size, shape and number of food materials.
- Food vacuoles store the food material.
- They help in the digestion of food.
- They have also roles in excretion of faecal materials.
3. Water vacuole: The smallest transparent, round water-filled vacuole in the body of Amoeba is the water vacuole. In number, it can be one or more. Water vacuole is noncontractile.
Functions: Water vacuole contains water and keeps the balance of water constant of the body. If an Amoeba is examined under the high-powered microscope some organelles are seen as.