Thermodynamics - QS Study
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Standard Free Energy Change and Equilibrium Constant

Standard free energy change and equilibrium constant Similar to standard enthalpy of formation of compounds, the standard free energy of formation, ∆Gf0 of compounds have......

Helmholtz Free Energy and its Significance

Helmholtz free energy (work function) and its significance In thermodynamics, the Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “useful” work obtainable from......

The Free Energy and the Work Function

The Free Energy and the Work Function We have already established the criterion of spontaneous processes and equilibrium. Spontaneous processes, whether chemical or physical, often......

Direction of Chemical Change

Direction of chemical change It is possible to calculate free energy change of a reaction and decide whether the reaction will take place spontaneously under......

Gibbs Free Energy: Spontaneity and Equilibrium

Gibbs free energy, spontaneity and equilibrium We know that useful work can be obtained from spontaneous natural processes. Since the free energy change is a......

Entropy and Molecular Chaos

Entropy and Molecular Chaos It has now been established that spontaneous processes are accompanied by increase of entropy and the entropy of a system at......

Properties of Third Law of Thermodynamics

Properties of Third Law of Thermodynamics The kinetic molecular theory of matter emphasizes the fact that the microscopic or bulk property of matter is a......

The Third Law of Thermodynamics

The Third Law of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics leads to the definition of entropy and calculation of differences of entropy. We have seen......

Entropy Change in an Irreversible Process

Entropy change in an irreversible process Entropy is a state function and ∆S, in going from an initial state A to a final state B,......

Total Entropy Change of a System and its Surroundings

Total entropy change of a system and its surroundings A system is that part which is under investigation. The surroundings constitute all other parts which......

Entropy vs Equilibrium

Entropy vs equilibrium A system is said to be in equilibrium when it has no further tendency of change. In a reversible process all stages are......

Heat Engine

Heat Engine Heat engine is a machine which converts thermal energy into work. The discovery of heat engine played a crucial role in many technological......

Statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics The second law has been stated in many ways which may appear to be different. However, these various......

Non-Spontaneous Process in Thermodynamics

Non-spontaneous process: Non-spontaneous processes are those that do not take place by themselves. Non-spontaneous process is a type of reaction which cannot occur without the......

Spontaneous Process in Thermodynamics

Spontaneous Process: A process that takes place without any outside influence is called a spontaneous process. A spontaneous process is capable of proceeding in a......