Solid State - QS Study
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Tests of Isomorphism

Tests of isomorphism: For two substances to be isomorphous with each other the following three criteria are to be satisfied: (a) The crystalline form should......

Isomorphism

Isomorphism is an identity or close similarity in the crystalline form of substances typically containing dissimilar elements but having similar composition. It was recognized early......

Liquid Crystals

Liquid Crystals In a liquid the molecules have no orderly arrangement. The molecules can move with respect to each other in a random manner, so......

Specific Heats of Solids

The Specific Heats of Solids (Dulong and Petit’s law) Dulong and Petit in 1819 observed that at room temperature and atmospheric pressure the product of......

Crystal Detects

Crystal detects The presence of defects to crystal lattice may profoundly influence the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of crystal. Reactively of the solids may......

Defects in Solids

Defects in Solids A crystal is considered to be ideal or perfect if there is regular arrangement of lattice points, and there is no irregularity......

Describe ‘Hole Concept’ in terms of Conductance

The ‘hole’ concept and conductance At sufficiently high temperature a significant number of electrons in the valence band may gain enough thermal energy and promoted......

Semiconductors in Solid Materials

Semiconductors in Solid Materials The term semiconductor refers to those which have weak conductivity at low temperatures but show increased conductivity as the temperature is......

Insulators in Solid Materials

Insulators in Solid Materials A non-conductor or insulator has completely occupied lower band separated from the conduction band by a wide energy gap as schematically......

Conductors in Solid Materials

Conductors in Solid Materials The conductors are characterized by overlapping of either (i) partially filled valence band and the conduction band (Figure: a) or (ii)......

Solid Materials: Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors

Solid Materials: Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors The electrical conductivity of solids was first demonstrated by Stephen Gray in 1729. Conductivity is the ability of a......

Powder Method Technique for X-ray Diffraction

The Powder Method technique for X-ray diffraction P. Debye and P. Scherrer devised a very simple technique for obtaining X-ray diffraction data. Their technique, known......

Application of X-ray Diffraction

Application of X-ray Diffraction The most important application of X-ray diffraction is in the field of determination of crystal structure X-ray diffraction technique has enabled......

Structure of Sodium Chloride Crystals

The Structure of Sodium Chloride Crystals It is known from the external geometry of sodium chloride crystal that it belongs to the cubic system. X-ray......

Cubic Lattices: Internal Structure of Crystal

Cubic Lattices In the cubic lattice system the three different space lattices are called the simple cubic, the face-centred cubic and the body-centred cubic lattices.......