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Explain Evanescent Waves and Frustrated Total Internal Reflection

When θi > θc, we have total internal reflection, but there must still be an EM field present on the the other side of the......

Describe Reflectance and Transmittance

The reflectance and transmittance are defined in terms of the rate of energy flow incident on unit area of the interface, Si • (- ei)......

Explain Normal Incidence in Amplitude Coefficients

For normal incidence the plane of incidence is undefined and the results we have obtained for the cases of parallel and perpendicular polarisations must therefore......

Amplitude Coefficients and Phase Shift for Internal Reflection

The amplitude coefficients for the case of internal reflection r┴ , t┴, r‖ and T‖ are plotted in Fig (a) for flint glass to air.......

Explain Amplitude Coefficients and Phase Shift for External Reflection

By definition, for external reflection nt > ni. Hence, √ [(nt / ni)2 – sin2 θi] is real for all θi, and so therefore are......

Amplitude Reflection and Transmission Coefficient for Parallel Polarization

Amplitude reflection and transmission coefficient for parallel polarization Figure: EM field geometry for parallel (π, p) polarisation. The magnetic field is shown pointing in to......

Amplitude Reflection and Transmission Coefficients for Perpendicular Polari-sation

Amplitude reflection and transmission coefficients for perpendicular polari-sation Figure: EM field geometry for perpendicular (σ, s) polarisation. The electric field is shown pointing out of......

Explain Boundary Conditions at Interface

As an electromagnetic wave intersects the interface between two dielectrics, it is the boundary conditions on the electromagnetic field that determine the properties of the......

Explain Laws of Reflection and Refraction

Consider a monochromatic plane EM wave incident on a plane boundary between two dielectric materials. Part of the wave is transmitted and part is reflected.......

Explain Circular and Elliptical Polarisation

In both circular and elliptical polarisation the electric and magnetic field vectors rotate with angular frequency w. In circular polarisation E0,y = E0,x ≡ E0......

Explain Linear Polarisation

In linear polarisation the two phase constants are equal, by ϐy = ϐx ≡ ϐ, and so Re {R (r, t) = (x E0,x +......

Explain Polarisation of EM Waves

In this section linear, circular and elliptical polarisations will be described in terms of the electric field of a monochromatic plane wave propagating in the......

What is Coherence of EM Waves?

The monochromatic plane wave solutions are an idealisation because they are of infinite extent in all directions and are pure sinusoidal waves, i.e. the spread......

Explain Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Waves

Since for an EM wave B = √(μƐ) E, the electric and magnetic contributions to energy density are equal, (Ɛ E2)/2 = B2/2μ and so......

Explain EM Waves in Vacuum and Linear Media

Starting with Maxwell’s equations, we shall shortly derive the wave equations for the electric and magnetic fields and show that they predict the existence of......