### Explain 1 s Electron of the Hydrogen Atom with Integration

The probability P that an electron is a distance r from the nucleus is called the radial distribution function. The hydrogen atom’s is electron radial......

### Integration Quantum Mechanics of Conjugated Polyene Molecule

A polyene molecule is a linear hydrocarbon chain of alternating single and double bonded C-atoms. Polyene molecules are important in biological processes and below Figure......

### Enthalpy of Molecule and Temperature Changes with Integration

The enthalpy of a molecule, H, changes by dH when the temperature, T, changes by dT and the change is commonly given as a polynomial......

### Ideal Gas Expansion with Integration

We have one mole of ideal gas at an initial volume of 4.90×103 cm3 which expands to a final volume of 2.45×104 cm3 at a......

### Describe Expanding Gas and Thermodynamic Work

In Chemistry it is very common to have gases being formed, reacting, compressed or expanding. A simple way of understanding such processes is to begin......

### Explain Second-Order Chemical Reactions with Intregration

If the overall (or stoichiometric) reaction is two molecules of A reacting to give products 2A → P with rate constant k then for some......

### Explain Radioactive Decay with Integration

The decay of a radioactive element A → P has a rate constant k. Radioactive decay is a first-order chemical reaction with [A] and t......

### Explain Consecutive Chemical Reactions with a Rate Determining Step

[B] = [A]0 [k1 /(k2 – k1) (e-k1t – e-k2t) By consideration of each of the terms of the equation find approximate expressions for [B]......

### Consecutive Chemical Reactions: the Steady State Approximation

[B] = [A]0 [k1 /(k2 – k1) (e-k1t – e-k2t) By consideration of each of the terms in the equation show that if k2 is......

### Describe Consecutive Chemical Reactions

Two chemical reactions consecutively follow on from one another. Consecutive reactions are generally very common in biochemistry and organic chemistry. K1 k2 A → B......

### Explain Differentiation of the Arrhenius Equation

The rate constant k for a chemical reaction is related to the temperature T by the Arrhenius equation. k = Ae– (Ea/RT) Where A and......

### How to Change in pH?

The pH of a solution in which the hydrogen ion concentration is [H] is defined by: pH = – log[H+] Firstly, show that d(pH)/d[H+] arising......

### Intermolecular Interactions: Mathematical Solution

V = – 4 ε [(σ/r)6 – (σ/r)12] Question 1: The variables in the Lennard-Jones equation are V and r, Firstly, find the derivatives of......

### Describe Intermolecular Interactions with Equation

The non-bonding interaction between two neutral atoms or two neutral molecules, their intermolecular interactions, is given by the Lennard-Jones equation. V = – 4 ε......

### Measuring Rates of Chemical Reaction from Concentration Data

In a chemical reaction the concentration of a reagent [A] is found to decrease with time t as it is consumed to form products. A......