Explain Limitation of first Law of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics tells us that energy can be changed from one form to another but can be neither created nor destroyed in......

Describe Second Law of Thermodynamics

Second law of thermodynamics can be stated in many ways: i) “It is impossible to construct an engine which operated in a complete cycle will......

Explain Second Law of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is a general statement of equivalence between work and heat. The second law of thermodynamics enables us to know whether......

Describe Carnot’s cycle

A thermodynamic cycle in which a working substance starting from a given initial thermal state undergoes two successive expansion, one isothermal and other is adiabatic......

Describe Carnot’s reversible engine

Any heat engine is used to convert heat into mechanical work. An ideal engine free from all in perfections of practical engines was conceived by......

What is entropy?

A thermodynamic state function which may be used to determine the direction of flow of heat from one thermal state to another and the function......

State second law of Thermodynamics

On the basis of the experimental results of the Carnot’s engine scientists described how the heat is transferred from one system to the other. They......

Measuring Enthalpy Changes by Calorimeter

A calorimeter is a device used to measure the heat absorbed or released during a physical or chemical change. Everything inside the bomb is the......

Standard State Enthalpy Changes

In order that chemists worldwide can compare notes on thermochemical experiments, a series of special conditions have been agreed. The term “standard state enthalpy” refers......

Thermochemical Equations

It is important to give the exact reaction equation when quoting the associated energy change. 2Mg (s) + O2 (g) → 2MgO (s), ΔH =......

Endothermic Reaction

If the potential energy diagram shows that the energy of the reactants is lower than that of the products, the reaction will take in energy.......

Enthalpy Diagrams

Enthalpy diagrams are a representation of the relative internal energy of a system before and after a reaction. Horizontal lines are drawn to show the......