Non-Spontaneous Process in Thermodynamics

Non-spontaneous process: Non-spontaneous processes are those that do not take place by themselves. Non-spontaneous process is a type of reaction which cannot occur without the......

Spontaneous Process in Thermodynamics

Spontaneous Process: A process that takes place without any outside influence is called a spontaneous process. A spontaneous process is capable of proceeding in a......

Necessity of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Necessity of the Second Law of Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics treats the universe as a closed system and states that the amount of......

Lattice Enthalpy (L.E.)

The Lattice Enthalpy (L.E.) In an ionic compound the oppositely charged ions are held together by electrostatic forces of attraction. A quantitative measure of the......

Electron Affinity

Electron Affinity The electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added......

Enthalpy of Ionization or Ionization Energy

Enthalpy of Ionization or Ionization energy When an electron is removed from an atom a cation is formed. In this process energy will be absorbed.......

Standard Enthalpy of Reaction from Average Standard Bond Enthalpies

Standard enthalpy of reaction from average standard bond enthalpies The average standard bond enthalpy data are useful in calculating the standard enthalpy of reactions. As......

Calculation of Heat of Reaction: Bond Energy

Calculation of Heat of Reaction: Bond Energy Reactions between covalent compounds actually involve bond breaking and bond forming. The process of breaking bonds between two......

Property of Heat of Neutralization

Property of Heat of Neutralization The question of the heat of neutralization of a weak acid by a strong base has another aspect which is......

Heat of Neutralization

Heat of Neutralization “The heat evolved when one mole of water is formed by complete neutralization of an acid with a base is called the......

Application of Newton’s Laws of Motion: Towing a Boat

Application/Uses of Newton’s Laws of Motion When a body applies force on another body then the second body also applies equal and opposite force on......

Enthalpy of Dilution

Enthalpy of Dilution When one mole of a substance is dissolved in a specified quantity of solvent in a large number of steps the enthalpy......