Hydrogen Bonding: Description in terms of Inter-molecular Forces

Hydrogen bonding Strong forces of attraction exist between molecules containing a hydrogen atom bonded to a highly electronegative element such as nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine.......

Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding: Definition in terms of Inter-molecular Forces

Intramolecular hydrogen bonding (i.e. hydrogen bonding between the hydrogen atom in one part of the molecule with an electronegative atom like oxygen or nitrogen in......

Why Dispersion Forces Depend on two Aspects of Molecular Structure?

Dispersion forces depend on two aspects of molecular (or atomic) structure. First, they increase in magnitude with the size and number of electrons and protons......

Dipole-Induced Dipole Force

Dipole-induced dipole force (London forces or dispersion forces) A dipole–induced dipole attraction is a weak attraction that results when a polar molecule induces a dipole......

Ionic Interactions

Ionic Interactions Electrostatic interactions occur between ions resulting in the formation of strong ionic bonds. These bonds are formed when metals atoms transfer their valence......

Dipole – Dipole Interactions

Dipole — Dipole interactions: Dipole-dipole interactions were first described by Willem Hendrick Keesom in 1921. These are the forces that occur between two polar molecules......

Dipole-Induced Dipole Interactions

Dipole-induced dipole interactions: Dipole-induced dipole interaction involves the attraction between temporally induced dipoles in non-polar molecules. This polarization can be induced either (a) by a......

What is the Joule Thomson effect?

If a gas is compressed and then allows expanding suddenly then temperature of the gas decreases. This phenomenon is known as joule Thomson effect. Reason:......

What is liquid crystal?

Liquid Crystal State: There are some organic compounds which do not convert to transparent liquid but convert to non-transparent (turbid) liquid which melt on heating.......

Plasma state of substance

Plasma is an ionized gas. At very high temperatures 104 K to 105 K, electrons are removed from the atoms to form ions, but the system is......

What is unit cell of crystal?

The smallest portion of a crystal which contains all the fundamental properties and acquires the structure of a crystal, without any repetition is called the......

What are the ideal gas and real gas?

Ideal Gas: The gas which obeys all gas laws i.e. Boyle’s Law and Charle’s Law at all temperature and pressure is known as Ideal Gas.......