## Maxwell’s Equations in Vacuum

Maxwell modified Ampere’s law in 1865 to make it apply to electrodynamics by adding the displacement current to the current. Replacing Ɛ E with D and B/μ0 with H we obtain versions applicable to matter.…

Maxwell modified Ampere’s law in 1865 to make it apply to electrodynamics by adding the displacement current to the current. Replacing Ɛ E with D and B/μ0 with H we obtain versions applicable to matter.…

Scottish theoretical physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) unified electricity and mag-netism into classical electrodynamics. A logical development of his equations follows. In going from electrostatics (Δ x E = 0) to electrodynamics, E is no…

A certain amount of energy is needed to start a current in a circuit – work is done against the back emf to get the current going and set up the magnetic field. The work…

A changing current not only induces an emf in a nearby circuit, it also induces an emf in the source circuit. As an example, we consider a variable voltage source V(t) connected to a solenoid…

Since electric currents produce magnetic fields, time-varying currents produce time-varying magnetic fields. Hence, a time-varying current in a circuit will produce a time-varying mag-netic flux through a nearby circuit loop causing an emf in that…

English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday (1791-1867) discovered that the emf produced was proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux through the circuit. For the circuit the magnetic flux through the circuit is…

The electro motive force (abbreviation emf, symbol Ɛ, unit V) is what drives a current around a circuit. Examples of sources of emf include batteries, piezoelectric crystals, solar cells and electrical generators (alternators and dynamos).…

A magnetic dipole of moment M = mz is located at the origin. A thin circular conducting ring of radius a vibrates such that the position of its centre is r = [z0 + b…

bc = a, b must be greater than 1 then c = logb (a) We say that c is the logarithm to the base b of a. Here are two examples which are familiar from…

Some chemical reactions may have come to an equilibrium, A+2B ≈ 3C+2D At a given temperature this reaction will eventually come to chemical equilibrium, the double half-arrows indicate that both the forward reaction and the…

Some chemical reactions may have come to an equilibrium, A +2B ≈ 3C+2D At a given temperature this reaction will eventually come to equilibrium, the double 1 that both the forward reaction and the reverse…

Chemists routinely need to know and alter the concentrations of solutions in the lab. The concentration of a solute is c mol L-1 and is given in terms of the number of moles of the solute,…

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