Moment of Inertia and its Physical Significance - QS Study
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According to Newton’s first law of motion, a body must continue in its state of rest or of uniform motion unless it is compelled by some external agency called force. The inability of a material body to change its state of rest or of uniform motion by itself is called inertia. Inertia is the fundamental property of the matter. For a given force, the greater the mass, the higher will be the opposition for motion, or larger the inertia. Thus, in translatory motion, the mass of the body measures the coefficient of inertia.

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Similarly, in rotational motion also, a body, which is free to rotate about a given axis, opposes any change desired to be produced in its state. The measure of opposition will depend on the mass of the body and the distribution of mass about the axis of rotation. The coefficient of inertia in rotational motion is called the moment of inertia of the body about the given axis.

Moment of inertia plays the same role in rotational motion as that of mass in translatory motion. Also, to bring about a change in the state of rotation, torque has to be applied.