Regulation of Body Function
The biological reason for the regulation is organism’s adaptation to continually changing conditions of its survival and in the related concurrence, in connection with this, the activities of all its organs and systems.
Body function is regulated by two major regulatory systems –
Nervous regulation: The main role in the regulation of body functions and ensuring its integrity belongs to the Central nervous system and its tertiary division – the bark of the big hemispheres.
The nervous system is composed of three major parts-
- The sensory input portion.
- The central nervous system (or integrity portion).
- The motor output portion.
Sensory receptors: Detect the state of body or the state of surrounds such as touches, visual image etc.
Central nervous system: Composed of the brain and spinal cord. The brain can store information, generate thoughts, create ambition, and determine reaction and response to the sensations.
Motor Portion: Appropriate signals are transmitted through the motor portion to carry out the person’s desire.
Located in the body are many endocrine glands that secrete chemical substances called hormones. Hormones are transported in the ECF to all the parts of the body to help regulation of cellular function. For example –
Thyroid hormone: Increases the rates of most chemical reactions in all cells.
- Insulin: Controls glucose metabolism.
- Adrenocortical hormones: Controls Na+, K+ and protein metabolism.
- Parathyroid hormones: Controls bone calcium and phosphate metabolism.
Thus the nervous system, in general, regulates mainly muscular and secretory activities of the body, whereas the hormonal system regulates mainly the metabolic functions.