QS Study

Respiratory Centre

Definition: The group of neurons in the brain which regulates the respiration rhythmically are collectively known as a respiratory centre. It is made up of three major respiratory groups of neurons, two in the medulla and one in the pons.

Situation – They are located bilaterally in pons and medulla oblongata.

Groups of neuron- Respiratory centre is divided into four major groups:

Groups (1): Inspiratory centre (Dorsal respiratory group) – In the medulla, the dorsal respiratory group makes up the inhalation area of respiratory control.

Location: the Dorsal portion of the medulla oblongata.

Name of Nucleus: Nucleus of Tractus solitarious

Function:

  • Produces inspiratory ramp signal to generate the basic rhythm of respiration.
  • Sensory termination of peripheral chemoreceptor, Baroreceptor, and stretch receptor of the lung.

Groups (2): Expiratory centre (Ventral respiratory group) – In the medulla, the ventral respiratory group makes up the exhalation area of respiratory control.

Location: Anterolateral part of medulla, oblongata

Name of Nucleus: Nuclear ambiguous, and nucleus retro ambiguous.

Function:

  • It causes either expiratory or inspiratory signal upon which neurons in the group are stimulated.
  • It sends an inhibitory impulse to apneustic centre.

Groups (3): Apneustic centre. It controls the intensity of breathing, giving positive impulses to the neurons involved with inhalation.

Location: Lower part of Pons.

Function:

  • It sends a stimulatory impulse to the inspiratory centre.
  • It receives an inhibitory impulse from pneumotoxic centre and from stretch receptor of the lung.
  • It discharges inhibitory impulse to expiratory center.
  • To prevent the ‘switch off’ of the inspiratory ramp signal and allow the lung to expand completely.

Groups (3): Panumotaxic centre. Situated in the dorsolateral part of the reticular formation in the pons.

Location: Upper part of the pons.

Name of Nucleus: Nuclear parabrachialis.

Function:

  • It sends an impulse to limit the duration of respiratory rate.
  • Control the ‘switch off’ point of an inspiratory ramp, thus control both rate and pattern of breathing.
  • It controls both rate and pattern of breathing. Limit inspiration.
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