QS Study

Purpura is a clinical condition characterized by a tendency of spontaneous haemorrhage beneath the skin, mucous membrane from various internal organs. It is a condition of red or purple discolored spots on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressure. The appearance of an individual area of purpura varies with the duration of the lesions. It is defined as being between 3 millimetres and 1 centimetre in size.

Cause

  • Various infection e.g., Endocarditis, typhus etc.
  • Many drugs e.g., bismuth iodine.
  • Cancer.
  • Bone marrow depression.
  • Hormone replacement
  • Estrogen therapies

Fig: Purpura Sign

Types

(A) Thrombocytopenic purpura (Platelet count low). Three types –

  1. Primary or idiopathic purpura
  2. Secondary or Symptomatic
  3. Post-transfusion purpura

(B) Thrombasthenic purpura (Abnormal platelet but platelet count normal)

(C) Vascular disorders (nonthrombocytopenic purpura)

  1. Microvascular injury, as seen in senile (old age) purpura, when blood vessels are more easily damaged
  2. Hypertensive states
  3. Deficient vascular support
  4. Vasculitis, as in the case of Henoch–Schönlein purpura

Laboratory findings

Treatment: Infusion of radioactive phosphorus. Treatments include medications and sometimes a splenectomy, or surgery to remove the spleen. Adults diagnosed with mild thrombocytopenic purpura may recover without any intervention.