Polio: Disease Overview - QS Study
QS Study

Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a crippling and potentially fatal contagious disease. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 1 in 200 polio infections will effect in enduring paralysis. It is caused by the poliovirus. It is an infectious viral illness that in its most harsh form causes paralysis, complexity inhalation and from time to time death. The virus spreads from person to person and can attack a contaminated person’s brain and spinal cord, causing paralysis.

Causes and Spreads

The poliovirus habitually enters the atmosphere in the feces of someone who is contaminated. In areas with deprived hygiene, the germ easily spreads from feces into the water supply, or, by touch, into food. It can also be spread by an infected person who has contaminated food or fluids by touching or tasting them.

Poliovirus can be transmitted through unhygienic water and food or through direct contact with someone contaminated with the virus. In addition, for the reason that polio is so infectious, directly get in touch with a person contaminated with the virus can reason polio. Unfortunately, a person can be contagious and convey the virus even before they expand any symptoms.


Some people who expand symptoms from the poliovirus contract nonparalytic polio — a type of polio that doesn’t escort to paralysis. This generally causes the similar mild, flu-like signs and symptoms characteristic of other viral illnesses.

Signs and symptoms, which generally last one to 10 days, include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Back pain and Neck pain
  • Muscle weakness or tenderness
  • Meningitis

In exceptional cases, poliovirus contagion leads to paralytic polio, the mainly severe form of the disease. Paralytic polio has numerous types, based on the part of your body that’s affected — your spinal cord, your brainstem, or both (bulbospinal polio).

Initial signs of paralytic polio, such as fever and headache. Within a week, however, symptoms exact to paralytic polio comes into view, including:

  • Loss of reflexes
  • Rigorous muscle aches or weakness
  • Loose and floppy limbs (flaccid paralysis).

Post-polio syndrome

A post-polio syndrome is a group of disabling signs that distress a few people some years — an average of 35 years — after they had polio. Regular symptoms include:

  • Progressive muscle or joint weakness and pain
  • Muscle weaken
  • Breathing or swallowing troubles
  • Sleep-related breathing disorders, such as sleep apnea
  • Cognitive troubles, such as attention and remembrance difficulties

Risk factors

No one recognizes why just a little proportion of infections guide to paralysis. Numerous type danger factors have been recognized as raising the possibility of paralysis in an individual contaminated with polio. These contain:

  • Immune deficit
  • Pregnancy
  • Subtraction of the tonsils
  • Intramuscular injections, e.g. medications.

Treatments and drugs

There are two vaccines accessible to struggle polio:

  • inactivated poliovirus (IPV)
  • oral polio vaccine (OPV)

IPV consists of a series of injections that start 2 months after birth and continue until the child is 4-6 years old. The vaccine is made from inactive poliovirus. It is very secure and effectual and cannot reason polio.

OPV is created from a damaged form of poliovirus; this version is the vaccine of alternative in many countries because it is little cost, simple to manage, and gives an admirable altitude of resistance. However, in very exceptional cases, OPV has been recognized to regress to a unsafe form of poliovirus, which is capable to reason paralysis.

Because no treatment for polio exists, the focal point is on growing relieved, speeding revival, and avoiding difficulties. Helpful actions contain:

  • Bed respite and Pain relievers
  • Portable ventilators to support inhalation
  • Physical therapy to avert irregularity and loss of muscle function
  • A healthy diet.

Because there is no treatment for polio just the once a person develops the virus, conducts are alert on rising relieve, supervision indications, and avoiding difficulties. This can contain bed respite, antibiotics for supplementary infections, painkillers, ventilators to assist inhalation, physiotherapy, temperate workout, and an accurate diet.

Polio vaccine

At present, the majority children in the World receive four doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at the following ages:

  • Two months
  • Four months
  • Between 6 and 18 months
  • Between ages 4 and 6 when children are just entering school

IPV is 90 percent efficient after two shots and 99 percent efficient after three. It can’t reason polio and is protected for people with destabilized immune systems, while it’s not assured just how defensive the vaccine may be in cases of a harsh immune deficit. Familiar side effects are soreness and reddishness at the injection site.

Fewer shots for your child

Polio vaccine is usually given in combination with vaccinations against other diseases, including diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP), pneumococcal infections, and hepatitis B. But your child may not require getting all these injections individually.


There is no healing for polio, only treatment to improve the symptoms. Heat and physical rehabilitation are used to arouse the muscles and antispasmodic drugs are given to relax the muscles. While this can get better mobility, it cannot overturn lasting paralysis.

This disease can be prevented through vaccination. Polio vaccine, given several times, approximately constantly protects a child for life.