QS Study

Ovulation is the process by which ovum is discharged with cumulous oophorus from mature graffian follicle into the peritoneal cavity. It is the process when hormone changes trigger an ovary to release an egg. You can only become pregnant if a sperm meets with and fertilizes an egg.

Time: Occurs at 14 ± 1 day before the onset of next menstruation.

Mechanism:

Shortly before ovulation, the protruding wall of the follicle swells rapidly and small areas in the center of the follicular capsule, called stigma protrude like a nipple.

The increased amount of LH causes the rapid function of follicular steroid hormones (progesterone) shortly before ovulation.

Progesterone causes the theca external (capsule of the follicle) begins to release proteolytic enzymes from lysosomes, which cause.

  • Dissolution of the capsular wall,
  • The weakening of the wall,
  • Swelling of the entire follicle,
  • Degeneration of stigma,

Simultaneously, there is the rapid growth of new blood vessels into the follicular wall and at the same time prostaglandins are secreted into follicular tissues.

These two effects, in turn, cause plasma transudation into follicle which contributes, further to follicular swelling.

Finally, the combined follicular swelling and simultaneous degeneration of the stigma cause a follicular rupture with the discharge of the ovum surrounded by cumulous oophorus.

Fig: Signs that of ovulation

Indications of ovulation

(A) Lower abdominal pain: During ovulation minor bleeding cause peritoneal irritation and produce pain. You might also experience light vaginal bleeding, discharge or nausea along with the ache or pain, which is usually mild and short-lived.

(B) Raise in basal body temperature: Due to increasing progesterone during ovulation temperature rises slightly by 0.2 – 0.50C. Because progesterone is thermogenic. As you get closer to ovulation, there’s a slight dip in basal body temperature followed by a sharp increase, typically of about 0.4 to 1.0 degrees, just after ovulation.

(C) Fern test: Taking cervical mucous on a slide. If it is like a fern (+ ve test) no ovulation occurs. But never means ovulation occur, Progesterone, thicken the mucous where estrogen makes it thin. The monitor measures LH and estrogen levels to identify your two peak fertile days, plus the one to five fertile days leading up to them.

(D) Endometrial biopsy: Secretors phase indicates a functional corpus luteum is present.