QS Study

The soft tissues covering the cranial vault are called the scalp. It refers to the layers of skin and subcutaneous tissue that cover the bones of the cranial vault. It is made up of the deep inner layer, the dermis, and the superficial layer, the epidermis.

Layers of the scalp –

Layers of the Scalp 1

The scalp is made up of five layers (from outer to inner)

  1. Skin: It is adherent to the epicranial aponeurosis through the dense superficial fascia. It contains numerous hair follicles and sebaceous glands (thus a common site for sebaceous cysts). It is often estimated that there is about 1,20,000 hair on the scalp of an adult individual.
  2. Superficial fascia (Connective tissue): It binds the skin to the subjacent aponeurosis. It connects the skin to the epicranial aponeurosis. It is richly vascularised and innervated. The blood vessels and nerves of the scalp are located in this layer.
  3. Epicranial aponeurosis (the occipitofrontalis muscle): It is freely movable on the pericranium along the overlying skin & fascia. It is a thin, tendon-like structure that connects the occipitalis and frontalis muscles.
  4. Loose areolar tissue: It is a thin connective tissue layer that separates the periosteum of the skull from the epicranial aponeurosis. This layer is traversed by emissary veins joining veins in the second layer of the scalp with intracranial dural venous sinuses.
  5. Pericranium: It is loosely attached to the surface of the bones. It becomes continuous with the endosteum at the suture lines. Along the suture lines, the pericranium becomes continuous with the endosteum.
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