Land stainer's Law - QS Study
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Land stainer’s law

Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943), the Austrian-born American immunologist who discovered the blood groups (ABO) and framed the Landsteiner’s Law by 1904.

Land stainer’s law

(A) First part

If an agglutinogen is present in the Red Blood Cell membrane, the corresponding agglutinin (Antibody) must be absent in plasma. If an agglutinogen is present on red blood cell membrane, the corresponding agglutinin must be absent in the plasma.

e.g. In blood group B, Agglutinogen is present in the RBC membrane but the corresponding Anti-A agglutinin must be present in plasma.

(B) 2nd part

If there is no agglutinogen in the RBC membrane, the corresponding agglutinin must be present in the plasma. If an agglutinogen is absent on red blood cell membrane, and then corresponding agglutinin must be present in the plasma.

e.g. In blood group O, there is no agglutinogen but α and β both agglutinin is present in plasma. Exception: Rh and MN system.

Applicability of the law:

  • The first law holds true for all types of blood grouping.
  • The second law is a fact for ABO blood groups.
  • The Rh, M, N and other blood groups do not follow the second part of landsteiner’s law.