QS Study

Infertility or Sterility

Infertility: Inability to produce offspring i.e. the inability to conceive (in female) or inability to induce conception (in male) is known as infertility or sterility. Sterility means that it is impossible for a couple to conceive a child. Infertility means that a couple is not sterile but for some reason has not been able to conceive a child. It can also be caused by being exposed to certain chemicals, for instance, chemotherapy.

Causes of male sterility: The main sign of male infertility is the inability to conceive a child.

  • Bilateral orchitis of testes, resulting from mumps,
  • Any abnormality or stricture in the genital ducts,
  • Lack of vitamin E for this, degeneration of germinal epithelium occurs in testes.
  • Temporary sterility due to high temperature, in the testes.
  • Varicocele (dilatation of the pampiniform plexus of the vein).

Male infertility is generally caused by problems that affect either sperm production or sperm transport. Through medical testing, the doctor may be able to find the cause of the problem.

Fig: Infertility or Sterility

Cause of female sterility: The most common causes of female infertility include problems with ovulation, damage to fallopian tubes or uterus, or problems with the cervix.

  • Hyposecretion of gonadotropin hormone causes the failure of ovulation or, any abnormality that will not allow ovulation.
  • Salpingitis which causes fibrosis of the tubes.
  • Endometriosis causing fibrosis throughout the pelvis.
  • Abnormal mucus secretion by the uterine cervix.
  • Lack of vitamin E causes resorption of testes after conception.

Percentage occurrence in male and female:

  • 30% in the man,
  • 45% in the woman,
  • 20% of both partners.
  • 5% of cases cannot be found.