QS Study

The tongue is an important organ of the body, an organ that allows you to chew, swallow, and talk. It is a muscular organ situated at the floor of the mouth. It is an important organ of the body, an organ that allows you to chew, swallow, and talk. The tongue is divided into right and left halves by a middle fibrous septum.

Development of tongue – The development of the tongue occurs between 4th and 8th week of the embryonic period of life. The first four pharyngeal arches contribute to its formation.

At about the 4th week, a median swelling called the tuberculum impar appears in the endodermal ventral wall or floor of the pharynx.

A little later, the lateral lingual swelling appears on each side of the tuberculum impar. The lateral swelling now enlarges grow medially and fuse with each other and with tuberculum impar. So,

The anterior two third: Develops from two lingual swellings and one tuberculum impar: i.e., the 1st branchial arch.

The posterior one third: Develops from the cranial half of the hypobranchial eminence that is, from the third branchial arch.

The posterior-most part: Develops from the fourth arch.

Muscles: Develop from the occipital myotomes. The muscles of the tongue, except palatoglossus, are all derived from the occipital myotomes and are therefore supplied by a non-branchiomeric arch nerve, the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII).

Connective tissue: Develops from the local mesenchyma.

Development of Tongue 1

Fig: Development of Tongue

Developmental anomalies of the tongue –

  1. Macroglossia: Excessive abnormal enlargement of the tongue. It is often associated with Down’s syndrome and Hunter’s syndrome.
  2. Haemangioma: Neoplasm of the blood vessels of the tongue.
  3. Tongue tie: Tongue is tied in its dorsal suffice so cannot be moved freely.
  4. Persistence of foramen caecum.
  5. Persistence of thyroglossal duet.
  6. Papillary atrophy.
Related Study: