QS Study

Compression of mediastinal structures by any growth (tumor) gives rise to a group of symptoms known as “mediastinal syndrome”. Mediastinal syndromes are a group of disorders involving the anatomical structures of the mediastinum.

Clinical Anatomy of Mediastinal Syndrome

Common symptoms –

(i) Obstruction of S.V.C gives rise to engorgement of veins in the half of the body.

(ii) Pressure over the trachea causes dyspnoea and cough.

(iii) Pressure over oesophagus causes dysphagia.

(iv) Pressure over the Lt. recurrent laryngeal nerve gives rise to hoarseness of voice.

The common causes of the mediastinal syndrome are a bronchogenic carcinoma, Hodgkin’s disease, causing enlargement of the mediastinal lymph node, and aneurysm of the aorta. Symptoms of the syndromes are associated with the anatomic structures involved; the compression of the trachea results in dyspnea and respiratory insufficiency, whereas compression of the esophagus results in dysphagia.

Fig: Clinical Anatomy of Mediastinal Syndrome

Carcinoma of the pancreas

The carcinoma commonly occurs in the head of the pancreas.

Major complications

  1. Pressure over the bile duct leads to persistent obstructive jaundice.
  2. It may press upon the portal vein, causing ascites, or may involve the stomach, causing pyloric obstruction.
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