QS Study

Blood Supply of Face

The face is developed by the fusion of a number of important processes around the stomodeum, namely front nasal process, maxillary process, and mandibular process. The external human face develops between the 4th and 6th week of embryonic development.

Blood supply of face: Most of the blood supplied to the face and scalp comes from the external carotid artery. The head receives the majority of its blood supply through the carotid and vertebral arteries.

(A) Arterial supply: The face is mainly supplied by –

  1. The facial artery,
  2. Superficial temporal artery,
  3. The arteries that accompany the cutaneous nerves.

The facial artery – This artery stems from the external carotid artery, follows the inferior border of the mandible, and enters the face. It provides blood to the muscles of the face.

Branch of: External carotid artery.


  1. The submental artery – This artery supplies blood to the tissues under the chin.
  2. The inferior labial artery – this artery runs medially to the lower lip, where it provides blood flow.
  3. The Superior labial artery – this artery runs medially to the upper lip and provides blood flow there.
  4. The lateral nasal artery – this artery runs out to the ala of the nose, this artery provides blood to the skin of the nose.

The superficial temporal artery – Starting at the termination of the external carotid artery and ascending in front of the ear to the temporal region, this artery supplies blood to the facial muscles and skin in the frontal and temporal areas.

Branch of: External carotid artery.

Branches: The transverse facial artery.

The Supratrochlear & supraorbital arteries – These artery branches from the ophthalmic artery and runs upwards to supply blood to the muscles and skin of the forehead and scalp.

Branch of: Ophthalmic artery.

Blood Supply of Face 1

Fig: (A) Arterial supply and (B) Venous drainage

(B) Venous drainage:

The veins of fact accompany the arteries and drain into the common facial & retromandibular vein. The venous blood from the face is emptied by 2 veins:

  • Facial vein – the largest vein of the face. It’s created at the medial angle of the eye by the union of supratrochlear and supraorbital veins.
  • Retromandibular vein – It is composed by the union of the superficial temporal and the maxillary vein inside the parotid gland.
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