Basal Ganglia - QS Study
QS Study

Basal Ganglia is the collection of masses of gray matter situated within each cerebral hemisphere. It refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible mainly for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Basal Ganglia are strongly interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas.

Parts

  • Caudate nucleus (Striatum)
  • Putamen (Striatum and Lenticular Nucleus)
  • Globus pallidus (Lenticular Nucleus)
  • Subthalamic nucleus (body of luys)
  • Substantia nigra.

Fig: Basal Ganglia

Functions

Its main function is related to motor refinement, acting as a tonically active break, preventing unwanted movements to start. It plays an important role in modulating cognitive and emotional responses.

  • Control the voluntary movements of the body.
  • Control reflex muscular activity.
  • Control automatic associate movement.
  • Control skilled movements.
  • Cheek abnormal Involuntary movement.

Disorder of basal ganglia – Two general types:

Hypokinetic:

  • Akinesia: Difficulty in the initiation of movement.
  • Bradykinesia: slowness of movement.

Hyperkinetic:

  • Chorea: Involuntary, rapid, dancing movements.
  • Athetosis: Continuous, slow, writhing movement.
  • Ballism / Hemiballism: Involuntary, intense, violent movements.