Acromegaly - QS Study
QS Study

Acromegaly

Definition: It is the hypofunctional state of growth hormone in the adult after the union of epiphysis with diaphysis. It is a hormonal disorder that develops when your pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone during adulthood. It is generally due to a pituitary gland tumor, known as a pituitary adenoma.

Time of occurrence: After adolescence. When this happens, your bones increase in size, including those of your hands, feet, and face.

Causes: Acidophilic tumor in the pituitary gland. The overproduction of growth hormone that is associated with acromegaly normally results from a tumor.

Symptom:

Enlarged hands and feet, Excessive sweating and body odor, Severe snoring due to obstruction of the upper airway, Enlarged tongue, Menstrual cycle irregularities in women, Enlarged liver, heart, kidneys, spleen and other organs.

Fig: Acromegaly

Clinical features

Skeletal changes:

  • Protrusion of lower jaw (Prognathism),
  • Enlargement of skull, forehead and supraorbital ridges (acromegalic facies),
  • Large hand (acral parts, hence the name is acromegaly),
  • Large feet (acral parts, hence the name is acromegaly),
  • Kyphosis,
  • Osteoarthitis.

Soft tissue:

  • Skin thickening,
  • Increase sweating,
  • A headache,
  • Increase sebum production,
  • Enlargement of lips, nose, tongue etc.,
  • Increased pad thickness,
  • Visceromegaly: liver kidney thyroid gland, heart etc.,
  • Arthropathy,
  • Myopathy,
  • Carpel tunnel syndrome.

Metabolic effect:

  • Abnormal Glucose tolerance (25%)
  • Diabetes mellitus (10%)
  • Hypertension (25%).