Inter Tropical Convergence Zone - QS Study
QS Study

Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)

The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a low-pressure zone located at the equator where trade winds converge, and so, it is a zone where air tends to ascend. It is a narrow zone near the equator where northern and southern air masses converge, typically producing low atmospheric pressure. It is a low-pressure belt, migrating with the thermal equator, resulting in a band of heavy precipitation around the globe. It is most active over continental land masses by day and relatively less active over the oceans. Over the Indian Ocean, it undergoes especially large seasonal shifts of 40°–45° of latitude.

In July, the ITCZ is located around 200N – 250N latitudes (over the Gangetic plain), sometimes called the monsoon trough. This monsoon trough encourages the development of thermal low over north and northwest India. Due to the shift of ITCZ, the trade winds of the southern hemisphere cross the equator between 400 and 600E longitudes and start blowing from southwest to northeast due to the Coriolis force. It becomes the southwest monsoon. In winter, the ITCZ moves southward, and so the reversal of winds from northeast to south and southwest takes place. They are called northeast monsoons.