What is Called Polarization? - QS Study
QS Study

When a cation comes close to an anion, the cation, being positively charged, attracts the electron cloud of the anion towards itself. At the same time, it repels the nucleus of the anion. Due to this attraction and repulsion, the shape of the anion is changed and its electron cloud is somewhat shifted towards the cation. This is called deformation or polarization of the anion by the cation and the power to deform the anion is called the polarizing power of the cation.