The role is a fundamental idea in understanding social system because all persons therein act in role relationships to each other and behavior means the managers perceive themselves in a certain job which establishes a set of relationships with other. The society’s expectations influence their behavior. According to Mintzberg: “The manager who only communicates or only conceives never gets anything done, while the manager who only ‘does’ ends up doing it all alone.”
William Shakespeare described the role, in his famous from as, you like it, as follows:
- All the world’s a stage.
- And all the Men and women merely players.
- They have their existence and then entrances.
- And one man in his time plays many parts.
The pattern of roles required for effectual management of social development is discussed and compared with that required for conventional progress project management. It is argued that while the executive skills related with more predictable projects are useful to social development managers, social development management places superior prominence on entrepreneurial behavior and awareness to both analyzing and influencing the environment external to the organization.
Subsequent studies comparing nations in different stages of industrial development have shown that they also have relatively similar perceptions of the managerial role. Since both technology and culture are somewhat different in these tuitions, it follows that there is something other than these two items that encourage similar role perceptions.