Factors that Affecting Source of Funds - QS Study
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Factors that Affecting Source of Funds

The choice of the source of finance depends upon a number of factors further depending upon the time, purpose, the type of organization etc. Financial needs of a business are of different types — long term, short term, fixed and fluctuating. Therefore, business firms resort to different types of sources for raising funds. Short-term borrowings offer the benefit of reduced cost due to reduction of idle capital, but long – term borrowings are considered a necessity on many grounds. Similarly equity capital has a role to play in the scheme for raising funds in the corporate sector.

The factors that affect the choice of source of finance are briefly discussed below:

(i) Cost: There are two types of cost viz., the cost of procurement of funds and cost of utilizing the funds. Both these costs should be taken into account while deciding about the source of funds that will be used by an organization.

(ii) Financial strength and stability of operations: The financial strength of a business is also a key determinant. In the choice of source of funds business should be in a sound financial position so as to be able to repay the principal amount and interest on the borrowed amount.

Form of organization and legal status: The form of business organisation and status influences the choice of a source for raising money. A partnership firm, for example, cannot raise money by issue of equity shares as these can be issued only by a joint stock company.

(iv) Purpose and time period: Business should plan according to the time period for which the funds are required. A short-term need for example can be met through borrowing funds at low rate of interest through trade credit, commercial paper, etc. For long term finance, sources such as issue of shares and debentures are more appropriate.

(v) Risk profile: Business should evaluate each of the source of finance in terms of the risk involved. For example, there is a least risk in equity as the share capital has to be repaid only at the time of winding up and dividends need not be paid if no profits are available.

Tax benefits: Various sources may also be weighed in terms of their tax benefits. For example, while the dividend on preference shares is not tax deductible, interest paid on debentures and loan is tax deductible and may, therefore, be preferred by organizations seeking tax advantage.