Berlo's S-M-C-R Communication Model - QS Study
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Berlo’s S-M-C-R Communication Model

David K. Berlo, a communication theorist and consultant developed a model named S-M-C-R model of communication in 1960 in his book “The Process of Communication”. Berlo pointed out the importance of the psychological view in his communication model. The four parts of Berlo’s S-M-C-R model are S = source, M = message, C = channel and R = receiver. The model is as follows:

The elements of Berlo’s model are discussed below:

(1) Source: The first element of Berlo’s communication model is the source. All communication must come from some sources. The source might be one person, a group of people, or a company. Several things determine how a source will operate in the communication process such as:

  • Communication skills like abilities to think, right, draw and speak.
  • Attitudes toward audience, the subject matter etc.
  • Knowledge of the subject, the audience and situation.
  • Social background, education, friends, salary, culture etc.

(2) Message: Message is the information, views of thoughts to be sent by the source. The source must choose the code or language for sending the message

(3) Channel: The channel is the method such as telegraph, newspaper, radio, letter, poster or other media through which the message will be transmitted

(4) Receiver: Receiver is the final element in the communication process. The receiver is the audience of the message.

Criticism of berlo’s smcr model of communication:

  • No feedback / don’t know about the effect
  • Does not mention barriers to communication
  • No room for noise
  • Complex model
  • It is a linear model of communication