How plants absorb water from soil? - QS Study
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Absorption of water by plants from soil:

The organ by which plant absorbs water: Plant absorbs water by root hair.

The water which plant absorbs: Only capillary water remaining inside the fine spaces of soil particles is absorbed by plants.

There are two notable theories for water absorption:
1. Passive absorption
2. Active absorption.

Absorption of water by roots

1. Passive absorption:
A scientist, named Kramer explained this method. According to him, Diffusion Pressure Deficit (D.P.D.) is made in the mesophyll tissue due to transpiration. The D.P.D. gradually passes through leaf, stem and root and ultimately reaches the root hairs. As a result, a suction pressure is produced and plants absorb capillary water from the soil. No metabolic energy is required in this process.

2. Active absorption:
Metabolic energy is required in this process. In fact, the absorption in this process takes place by osmosis.

Atkens (1916) and Priestly (1921) mentioned about the role of osmosis in the process of absorption by root hairs. According to them, absorption takes place due to the variation of osmotic pressure (0.P.) in between the capillary water and the root hair sap.

The process of active absorption:
As the O.P. of the root hair sap is greater than the O.P. of capillary water, so the capillary water enters the root hairs. This water gradually reduces the concentration of the root hair sap. Following cell to cell osmosis, water from the root hair reaches up to the endodermis passing through epidermal cells. Now, the flows of water occur through passage cells of endodermis.

In this process, the cortex cells become turgid in one time by absorbing water and they again become flaccid when their water is transferred to the adjacent cells. These flaccid cells again become turgid by absorbing water. A pressure produced in the cells by gradually being flaccid and turgid due to osmosis is called root pressure (RP.). The water absorbed by osmosis, enters the xylem vessels and from xylem vessels it reaches the leaf by root pressure (R.P.).