A non living rigid structure called the cell wall forms an outer covering for the plasma membrane of fungi and plants. Cell wall not, only gives shape to the cell and protects the cell from mechanical damage and infection. it also helps in cell to cell interaction and provides barrier to undesirable macromolecules. Algae have cell wall, made of cellulose, galactans, mannans and minerals like calcium carbonate, while in other plants it consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins and proteins. The cell wall of a young plant cell, the primary wall is capable o f growth, which gradually diminishes as the cell matures and the secondary wall is formed on the inner (towards membrane) side of the cell.

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The middle lamella is a layer mainly of calcium pectate which holds or glues the different neighboring cells together. The cell wall and middle lamellae may be traversed by plasmodesmata which connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells.