Classifications of Stem - QS Study
QS Study

Classifications of Stem

Observe the stems of a mango tree, a bottle gourd plant and a coconut tree. Some are strong, some are weak and some has no branches. From this it might be understood that stems can be of several types. However, stems can be primarily divided in to two groups. e.g. strong stems and weak stem.

1. Strong stem– This type of stems are strong and keep the plant erect firmly on ground e.g. mango, berry, coconut, palm etc. Some of these stems have branches and some do not.

(a) Caudex: The stem is erect, strong and has a crown of leaves at the top. Examples- coconut, palm and betel nut.

(b) Branched stem

  • Excurrent: This type of stems develops branches in such a way that they become a cone like structure and look like temples. The branches at the lower part of the tree are longer and the branches at the upper part become increasingly shorter. The whole tree takes the shape of a temple as it narrows down gradually from the bottom to the top. Examples of such stem include willow oak, tulip poplar, sweet gum and southern magnolia
  • Deliquescent: The stems of some trees are short and strong and the branches and cub branches are arranged from the stems in such a way that the trees look like domes. This types of stems arc found in mango, jack fruit and berry trees.
  • Culm: In these erect and unbranchcd stems nodes and internodes are very distinct. Adventitious roots grow from the nodes. Examples of such stems include bamboo, sugar cane etc. In certain cases the stems could he either void or solid.

2. Weak stem: Plants with this type of stem cannot stand upright and they grow either on the ground or creep on machan. Usually these stems contain no timber in them and that is why they are so weak and feeble. Some of them are trailers, some are creepers or climbers.

  • Creepers: These Stems grow horizontally on the soil surface and produce fibrous roots from each node. Examples- doob grass (Durba ), oxalis (amruli) etc.
  • Trailer: These stems grow and spread parallel to the soil surface but do not produce roots from nodes. Examples – Basella (Puin), peas etc.
  • Climber: These are weak stems that grow upward with the help of some forms of support. Examples- betel leaf, bean etc.