What is Costs of quality or quality costs? - QS Study
QS Study

Costs of quality as well as quality costs will not mean the use of expensive or extremely highly quality materials to manufacture an item. The term describes the costs which can be incurred to avoid, detect and remove defects from products. Costs of Quality costs tend to be categorized into some main types. Theses tend to be:

  1. Prevention costs
  2. Appraisal costs
  3. Internal failure costs and
  4. External failure costs.


These four types of quality costs are briefly explained below:

Prevention costs:

It is more preferable to prevent defects as an alternative to finding and removing them from merchandise. The costs incurred to prevent or minimize the quantity of defects at primary place are known as prevention costs. Some examples of prevention expenses are improvement of manufacturing processes, individuals training, quality engineering, statistical process command etc.

Appraisal expenses:

Appraisal costs (also known as inspection costs) usually are those cost that are incurred to recognize defective products before they may be shipped to consumers. All costs from the activities that usually are performed during manufacturing processes to make certain required quality specifications are also particularly category. Identification of defective products involve the maintaining a new team of inspectors. It could be very costly for a lot of organizations.

Internal failure costs:
Internal failure costs are those costs which are incurred to remove defects on the products before shipping these phones customers. Examples of internal failure costs include cost of rework, rejected merchandise, scrap etc.

Exterior failure costs:

If defective products are actually shipped to shoppers, external failure costs arise. External malfunction costs include extended warranties, replacements, lost sales as a result of bad reputation, payment for loss arising from the usage of defective products and many others. The shipment of defective products could dissatisfy customers, damage goodwill and reduce sales and profits.